Why Does Unemployment Rise During a Recession?
Many firms lay off staff at the same time during a recession, and job openings are limited.
When firms fail, their assets are sold to other businesses, and their former workers are hired back by other competitive enterprises, as is the regular course of business. Because numerous firms across various industries and marketplaces collapse at the same time during a recession, the number of unemployed employees seeking new opportunities rises quickly. The amount of labor ready for public employment increases while company's need for new employees decreases.
Several variables specific to job markets and recessionary situations might obstruct the normal process of revising jobs, earnings, and employment levels:
1.Different Kinds of Capital and Labor
Economists and statisticians frequently neglect disparities between various inputs to competitive business processes in order to construct aggregate economic and financial statistics that assist gauge overall economic performance, like unemployment rates and GDP, for the sake of simplicity. While these broad, conceptual numbers may be helpful, they conceal the fact that there are different types of workers, each with a unique set of skills, know-how, and experience that makes their labor more or less applicable to different types of employers engaged in various types of businesses, in various locations, and with a variety capital equipment and tools. Much of cyclical unemployment may be explained by this important capital and labor markets component.
Workers and occupations come in a wide range of shapes and sizes. It requires market flexibility and time to select the appropriate employees into the proper positions in order to minimize unemployment.
Furthermore, both of these sorting procedures need employer and worker flexibility. Flexibility in terms of the capacity to transfer and mix different types of employees and capital products across enterprises and marketplaces, not merely in terms of the prices, salaries, and quantities provided and demanded. If capital and labor markets were more flexible in these respects, the recession's impact would be less severe after the first shock.
The bad news is that a slew of extra obstacles might imply that capital and labor goods markets aren't flexible enough to avoid prolonged unemployment during a downturn.
One reason newly jobless people have a hard time finding new employment during a recession is that labor markets aren't quite like the ideal markets taught in fundamental economics classes. Wages may be "sticky," which distinguishes labor markets from those of many other items. In other words, even if there is less demand for labor and more supply, employers and employees may be hesitant to agree to reduce salaries.
In a downturn, both workers and employers may hesitate to slash salaries.
During a recession, unemployed employees may find that the occupations and professions they were engaged in, or even whole industries, vanish. This might be due to technical obsolescence or a structural shift in the economy due to an economic calamity that may have precipitated the recession.
Even if none of these causes are present, the build-up to a recession typically entails significant overinvestment in some industries and commercial activities and their accompanying human capital, which results in concentrated loss when the recession occurs. Typically, these are enterprises and activities that are very sensitive to or reliant on having enough credit at low rates, which isn't the case in a recession. Workers' human capital may not transfer well at all to other positions as a result of their investment in these enterprises.
One of the biggest problems with recessions is that government interventions may exacerbate and prolong unemployment by preventing labor markets from adjusting. Although this is not strictly cyclical unemployment, such policy responses are a common aspect of recessions that are important to analyze. There are various methods for this, but the most significant are monetary and fiscal policies that obstruct industrial structure changes. Direct government intervention in labor market conditions also has a role to some level.